Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions 2001 - 2005

April 2010

TP 2436 E
Fact Sheet RS 2010-03
Prepared by Motor Vehicle Safety Directorate

This document reviews casualty collisions (fatalities and injuries) involving heavy trucks in Canada from 2001 to 2005. Collisions involving heavy trucks include all vehicles in these collisions, such as passenger cars, light trucks and vans, heavy trucks, buses, motorcycles/mopeds and bicycles, as well as all other road users in these collisions including pedestrians. The report presents the heavy truck travel exposure, heavy truck involvement rates in fatal and injury collisions, and the victims in these heavy truck collisions. The report also presents collision characteristics for all heavy truck casualty collisions and separately for single-vehicle heavy truck casualty collisions. Examples of the collision characteristics are the number of vehicles in heavy truck collisions, hour and month of the collision, weather and road surface environmental conditions, road classification, and collision configuration.

The collision data in this report were obtained from Transport Canada’s National Collision Database (NCDB). The NCDB comprises data on all police-reported motor vehicle collisions in Canada and is provided annually to Transport Canada by the thirteen provinces and territories. The collisions are those deemed reportable, that is, they occur on public roads and they incur bodily harm and/or property damage exceeding a stipulated dollar threshold, $1,000 for all jurisdictions since 1998. Not all jurisdictions report all data elements in the NCDB. Those that do report all data elements do not necessarily report them each year and those that collect a specific data element do not necessarily use all the codes for the data element.

To summarize the report, the heavy truck involvement rate in fatal collisions per 100 million vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) decreased from 2001 to 2005, despite an increase in heavy truck traffic. Straight truck fatal collision rates were higher than tractor-trailer fatal collision rates. For injury collisions, involvement rates for heavy truck collisions combined increased, but decreased for straight truck collisions alone. The raw data show that fatal straight truck collisions increased while tractortrailer fatal collisions decreased, for an overall increase in heavy truck fatal collisions. Injury collisions increased for straight trucks and tractor-trailers. Fatality rates declined in both straight truck and tractor-trailer collisions; however, the raw data showed that fatalities increased in straight truck and tractor-trailer collisions. This increase was due partly to an increase in straight truck occupant fatalities and pedestrians involved in these straight truck collisions. The increase was also due to an increase in fatalities of occupants of the other vehicles involved with tractor-trailers, and pedestrians and bicyclists involved in the tractor-trailer collisions. Note that there was a decrease in pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities in collisions involving all vehicles other than heavy trucks, but the occupant fatalities increased in these other vehicle collisions. Injuries increased for all road users involved in straight truck and tractor-trailer collisions and decreased for all road users involved in collisions that did not include heavy trucks.

Summary Findings

Over the five-year period:

  • Heavy trucks travelled an annual average of about 24 billion kilometres (7.4 billion kilometres for straight trucks and 16.6 billion kilometres for tractor-trailers). Heavy truck traffic increased 16.0 percent (22.3 percent for straight trucks and 13.6 percent for tractor-trailers).
     
  • About 19 percent of all road users killed were in heavy truck collisions (13.0 percent for tractor-trailers and 6.3 percent for straight trucks).
     
  • About 73.6 percent of fatalities in heavy truck collisions were occupants of other vehicles involved with heavy trucks, 15.9 percent were heavy truck occupants, 8.7 percent were pedestrians, and 1.8 percent were bicyclists.
     
  • There were 2.5 fatalities in straight truck collisions and 2.2 fatalities in tractor-trailer collisions per 100 million heavy truck VKT, on average.
     
  • There were 2.2 straight trucks and 2.1 tractor-trailers involved in fatal collisions per 100 million heavy truck VKT, on average.
     
  • There was an annual average of 8,985 heavy truck casualty collisions, with averages of 4,792 and 4,339 for straight trucks and tractor-trailers, respectively.
     
  • The majority of heavy truck casualty collisions occurred during daytime hours, in clear weather on dry, undivided roads, and in higher speed zones. Two-thirds of straight truck casualty collisions occurred in urban areas. About 56 percent of tractor-trailer collisions occurred in areas deemed “rural”.
     
  • Single-vehicle fatal heavy truck collisions occurred mostly during the daytime, in clear weather on dry, straight, level, and undivided roads, and in areas deemed “rural”.
     
  • There were 23 pedestrians killed in heavy truck single-vehicle reversing collisions. Eighteen of these pedestrians were killed by straight trucks and 5 were killed by tractor-trailers.

Heavy Truck Exposure and Involvement Rates

Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT)

In this report, heavy truck exposure was calculated using VKT. VKT were obtained from the “Canadian Vehicle Survey”, a Statistics Canada publication available since 2000. VKT is the best measure of exposure because the distances travelled by the heavy trucks are more informative about their activity than other measures such as heavy truck registrations. Heavy truck registrations are

A. Vehicle Kilometres Travelled for Heavy Trucks

Table 1 shows the changes in heavy truck traffic from 2001 to 2005. Heavy truck traffic increased 16.0 percent overall despite some annual fluctuations. Individually, tractor-trailer traffic was more than twice that of straight trucks. Straight trucks had the higher overall increase (22.3 percent) in traffic while tractor-trailer traffic increased 13.6 percent. The source of the data is the Canadian Vehicle Survey.

Table 1. Vehicle Kilometres Travelled

Heavy Truck Type 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average
(millions)
Straight Trucks > 4,500 kg 6,272.2 5,887.4 7,959.7 9,182.2 7,673.0 7,394.9
Tractor Trailers ≥ 15,000 kg 16,111.6 15,690.0 15,670.4 16,984.3 18,295.0 16,550.3
Heavy Trucks 22,383.8 21,577.4 23,630.1 26,166.5 25,968.0 23,945.2

B. Heavy Truck Registrations

There were 36.7 percent more straight trucks than tractor-trailers registered, on average. With the exception of straight trucks in 2002, the heavy truck registrations increased over the five years. Tractor-trailers had a larger overall increase (12.4 percent) compared with straight trucks (5.2 percent). The source of the data is the Canadian Vehicle Survey.

Heavy Truck Type 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average
(millions)
Straight Trucks > 4,500 kg 387,330.0 366,962.0 378,251.0 389,810.0 407,405.0 385,951.6
Tractor Trailers ≥ 15,000 kg 267,129.0 277,339.0 282,185.0 285,154.0 300,180.0 282,397.4
Heavy Trucks 654,459.0 644,301.0 660,436.0 674,964.0 707,585.0 668,349.0

Involvement Rates for Heavy Trucks in Casualty Collisions

As shown in Figures 1 and 2, straight trucks had higher collision rates than tractor-trailers in both fatal and injury collisions, except for fatal collisions in 2004. Tractor-trailers generally had lower collision involvement rates than straight trucks despite travelling more than twice the distance.

A. Involvement Rates for Heavy Trucks in Fatal Collisions

Figure 1 shows the number of heavy trucks in fatal collisions per 100 million heavy truck VKT. These involvement rates are displayed for heavy trucks combined and individually for straight trucks and

There were 2.2 straight trucks and 2.1 tractor-trailers involved in fatal collisions per 100 million heavy truck VKT, on average over the five years. From 2001 to 2005, there was an average of 2.1 heavy

Figure 1. Involvement Rates for Heavy Trucks in Fatal Collisions

B. Involvement Rates for Heavy Trucks in Injury Collisions

Figure 2 shows the number of heavy trucks in injury collisions per 100 million heavy truck VKT. There were 66.2 straight trucks and 25.5 tractor-trailers involved in injury collisions per 100 million heavy truck VKT, on average over the five years. From 2001 to 2005, there was an average of

Figure 2. Involvement Rates for Heavy Trucks in Injury Collisions

Fatality Rates in Heavy Truck Collisions

Figure 3 shows the fatalities in heavy truck collisions per 100 million heavy truck VKT. The average fatality rates for straight trucks and tractor-trailers were 2.5 fatalities and 2.2 fatalities per 100 million VKT, respectively. From 2001 to 2005, there was an average of 2.2 fatalities in heavy truck

Figure 3. Fatality Rates in Heavy Trucks Collisions

Heavy Truck Casualty Collision Characteristics

Heavy Truck Involvement in Collisions

As shown in Table 3, from 2001 to 2005, there was an annual average of 8,985 heavy truck casualty collisions1, with averages of 4,792 straight truck casualty collisions and 4,339 tractor-trailer casualty collisions. Straight truck casualty collisions comprised 53.3 percent of heavy truck casualty collisions and tractor-trailers comprised 48.3 percent. Straight truck collisions and tractor-trailer collisions are not mutually exclusive because a straight truck collision may involve a tractor-trailer, and vice versa.

Heavy truck collisions accounted for 18.3 percent of fatal collisions and 5.7 percent of injury collisions, on average per year. Of the fatal collisions, straight truck collisions comprised 6.3 percent and tractortrailers comprised 12.4 percent, on an annual average.

Table 3. Casualty Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks and Other Vehicles 2001 - 2005 and Average

  2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average Average %
Fatal Collisions Involving:
Straight trucks 145 156 165 148 169 157 6.3
Tractor-trailers 303 313 316 316 296 309 12.4
Heavy trucks 441 457 475 453 457 457 18.3
Vehicles other than heavy trucks 1,989 2,137 2,011 1,977 2,101 2,043 81.7
Total Fatal Collisions 2,430 2,594 2,486 2,430 2,558 2,500 100.0
Injury Collisions Involving:
Straight Trucks 4,223 4,452 4,635 4,801 5,065 4,635 3.1
Tractor-trailers 3,714 3,879 4,105 4,162 4,290 4,030 2.7
Heavy trucks 7,830 8,216 8,587 8,801 9,207 8,528 5.7
Vehicles other than heavy trucks 141,125 145,634 141,886 136,455 136,397 140,299 94.3
Total Injury Collisions 148,955 153,850 150,473 145,256 145,604 148,828 100.0
All Casualty Collisions Involving:
Straight trucks 4,368 4,608 4,800 4,949 5,234 4,792 3.2
Tractor-trailers 4,017 4,192 4,421 4,478 4,586 4,339 2.9
Heavy trucks 8,271 8,673 9,062 9,254 9,664 8,985 5.9
Vehicles other than heavy trucks 143,114 147,771 143,897 138,432 138,498 142,342 94.1
Total All Casualty Collisions 151,385 156,444 152,959 147,686 148,162 151,327 100.0

1 The total of collisions involving heavy trucks is not the sum of collisions involving straight trucks and tractortrailers.
Refer to the explanatory note at the end of the document.

Number of Vehicles Per Heavy Truck Casualty Collision

Table 4 shows that, on average, the majority of heavy truck casualty collisions were two-vehicle collisions, regardless of collision severity and truck type. The greatest number of vehicles in the same fatal heavy truck collision during the five-year period was 56 in 2002, followed by 41 and 46 in 2001, and 36 in 2005.

Table 4. Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions by Number of Vehicles per Collision and Collision Severity, Average 2001 - 2005

Number of Vehicles in a Heavy Truck Collision Heavy Trucks Straight Trucks Tractor Trailers Light-Duty Vehicles
Fatal % Injury % Fatal % Injury % Fatal % Injury % Fatal % Injury %
One vehicle 19.3 20.0 22.0 18.1 17.4 21.4 46.3 28.9
Two Vehicles 65.7 64.7 64.5 65.8 65.5 63.1 44.6 60.5
Multiple Vehicles 15.1 15.3 13.5 16.1 17.2 15.5 9.1 10.6
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 2,283 42,640 783 23,175 1,544 20,150 11,045 706,278

Records with unknown Number of Vehicles were excluded from the table calculations.

Hour of Collision for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Figure 4 shows the percentages of fatal collisions, injury collisions and heavy truck VKT by hour of collision. Heavy truck fatal collisions were higher than heavy truck exposure from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM. Heavy truck injury collisions were greater than heavy truck exposure during the afternoon. Records with unknown Hour of Collision were excluded from the calculations.

Figure 4. Percentage of Heavy Truck Collisions and Heavy Truck Exposure by Hour of Collision, Average 2001 - 2005

Month of Collision for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Figure 5 and Table 5 show the distribution of heavy truck fatal and injury collisions according to month of occurrence. Heavy truck casualty collisions declined from January to April and increased throughout the remaining five-year average. There were more fatal heavy truck collisions (57.1 percent) from July to December as compared to injury collisions (52.6 percent), on average.

Figure 5. Month of Collision for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Table 5. Month of Collision for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Month of Collision Collision Severity
Fatal % Injury %
January 7.5 10.3
February 7.8 8.1
March 7.3 7.9
April 5.7 5.9
May 7.2 7.0
June 7.4 8.2
July 8.7 8.2
August 10.0 9.0
September 9.4 8.1
October 9.2 9.1
November 9.7 8.9
December 10.1 9.3
Total Percent 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 2,283 42,641

Records with unknown Month of Collision were excluded from the table calculations.

Weather Conditions for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

The weather at the collision site was recorded as clear for the majority of heavy truck casualty collisions. Clear weather should not be interpreted as a dry road surface. The road surface may have been dry, snow-covered, wet or slippery.

Table 6. Weather Conditions for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Weather Conditions Collision Severity
Fatal % Injury %
Clear 62.4 66.3
Cloudy 13.9 11.6
Snow 9.5 9.1
Rain 7.7 8.5
Bad Visibility 4.1 2.8
Sleet, Hail 1.1 0.9
Wind 0.8 0.7
Other 0.3 0.3
Total Percent 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 2,275 42,185

Records with unknown Weather Conditions were excluded from the table calculations.

Road Surface Condition at Collision Site for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Table 7 shows that the majority of heavy truck casualty collisions had dry road surface conditions, on average. This percentage was highest for fatal collisions (65.1 percent). Wet roads ranked second from 15 to 17 percent, followed by ice or packed snow from 7 to 8 percent, and fresh show at about 6 percent, on average.

Table 7. Road Surface Environmental Conditions for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions Average 2001 - 2005

Road Surface Environmental Conditions Collision Severity
Fatal % Injury %
Dry 65.1 62.2
Wet 15.8 16.8
Ice/Packed Snow 7.1 7.7
Fresh Snow 5.6 6.6
Other (e.g. slush, sand, gravel, muddy) 6.4 6.8
Total Percent 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 2,272 42,178

Records with unknown Road Surface Condition were excluded from the table calculations.

Collision Configuration for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Table 8A shows the percentage distribution of heavy truck casualty collisions by collision configuration. The percentages for specific configurations are likely understated because only one and two-vehicle collisions are coded separately in the database. Collisions involving three or more vehicles are included in the “All other collision configurations” category.

Of the fatal heavy truck collisions, the largest percentage was for two-vehicle head-on collisions (30.8 percent), followed by two-vehicle right-angle collisions (13.8 percent), two-vehicle rear-impact collisions (9.3 percent).

For injury collisions, the highest percentage was for rear-impact collisions (27.3 percent), followed by right-angle collisions (11.8 percent).

Tables 8B and 8C show the percentage distributions separately for straight trucks and tractor-trailers.

Table 8A. Collision Configuration for Casualty Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks Average 2001 - 2005

Collision Configuration Collision Severity
Fatal % Injury %
2V 2D: Head-on 30.8 4.6
2V 2D: Right Angle 13.8 11.8
2V 1D: Rear Impact 9.3 27.3
All other collision configurations 7.9 8.8
1V: Other configurations 7.3 7.7
1V: Run Off Right Side 4.7 6.3
2V 1D: Side-swipe 4.2 8.3
2V 2D: Left Turn across Traffic 3.6 4.0
2V 2D: Approaching Sideswipe 3.6 4.0
1V: Run Off Left Side 3.6 2.4
1V: Hit Moving Target 3.5 4.3
2V 2D: Other configurations 3.3 4.5
2V 1D: Passing to Left 1.5 2.5
2V: Hit Parked Vehicle 1.4 2.0
2V 1D: Passing to Right 0.6 2.3
1V: Hit Stationary Object 0.5 0.9
2V 1D: Other configurations 0.4 0.5
2V 2D: Right Turn 0.1 0.3
1V: Rolled 0.0 0.3
Total Percent 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 2,283 42,641

Records with unknown Collision Configuration were excluded from the table calculations.

1V -- Single vehicle 2V -- Two vehicles 1D – Same direction of travel 2D – Different directions of travel

Table 8B. Collision Configuration for Casualty Collisions Involving Straight Trucks Average 2001 - 2005

Collision Configuration Collision Severity
Fatal % Injury %
2V 2D: Head-on 28.2 4.1
2V 2D: Right Angle 15.3 14.4
2V 1D: Rear Impact 10.2 30.5
All other collision configurations 9.2 9.8
1V: Other configurations 5.5 5.9
1V: Run Off - Right 5.2 5.0
1V: Run Off - Left 4.2 3.7
1V: Hit Moving Target 4.2 2.0
2V 1D: Side-swipe 3.7 5.5
2V 2D: Other configurations 3.7 4.4
2V 2D: Left Turn across Traffic 3.1 4.9
2V 2D: Approaching Sideswipe 2.7 1.9
2V 1D: Passing to Left 1.5 2.1
2V: Hit Parked Vehicle 1.3 2.2
2V 2D: Right Turn 0.6 0.4
2V 1D: Passing to Right 0.5 1.9
1V: Hit Stationary Object 0.5 1.0
2V 1D: Other configurations 0.3 0.3
1V: Rolled 0.0 0.2
Total Percent 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 2,283 42,641

1V -- Single vehicle 2V -- Two vehicles 1D – Same direction of travel 2D – Different directions of travel

Table 8C. Collision Configuration for Casualty Collisions Involving Tractor-Trailers Average 2001 - 2005

Collision Configuration Collision Severity
Fatal % Injury %
2V 2D: Head-on 32.1 5.0
2V 2D: Right Angle 13.0 8.7
2V 1D: Rear Impact 9.5 24.3
All other collision configurations 8.0 9.5
1V: Other configurations 7.3 7.7
1V: Run Off - Right 4.5 11.4
1V: Run Off - Left 4.3 7.6
1V: Hit Moving Target 4.2 3.1
2V 1D: Side-swipe 3.9 2.9
2V 2D: Other configurations 3.1 4.7
2V 2D: Left Turn across Traffic 3.0 4.9
2V 2D: Approaching Sideswipe 2.9 0.7
2V 1D: Passing to Left 1.6 2.9
2V: Hit Parked Vehicle 1.4 1.8
2V 2D: Right Turn 0.6 2.9
2V 1D: Passing to Right 0.5 0.9
1V: Hit Stationary Object 0.2 0.5
2V 1D: Other configurations 0.1 0.2
1V: Rolled 0.0 0.4
Total Percent 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 1,544 20,150

1V -- Single vehicle 2V -- Two vehicles 1D – Same direction of travel 2D – Different directions of travel

Road Classification (Urban/Rural) at Collision Site for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

In the NCDB, road classification (i.e. urban/rural) is an indicator of population density and hence traffic density adjacent to the collision site. The definition of road classification is not consistent across all provinces and territories, but is the best data currently available. Generally, “Urban” is defined as metropolitan roads, streets and other urban areas, or a speed limit at the collision site of 60 km/h or less. “Rural” includes primary or secondary highways, as well as local roads, or a speed limit at the collision site exceeding 60 km/h. For example, on a multilane highway such as the 401 that passes through the city of Toronto, the classification would be deemed rural, even though a collision might occur within the city’s geographic boundaries. In Alberta and Saskatchewan, “urban” includes any area within the boundaries of a city, town, village, or hamlet. “Rural” includes any area outside of what is defined as “Urban”. Manitoba did not provide this data from 2002 to 2005.

Table 9 shows that 51.0 percent of all heavy truck casualty collisions occurred in areas deemed “rural” or in speed zones over 60 km/h. Of the heavy truck fatal collisions, the highest percentage (78.1 percent) occurred in “rural” areas or in speed zones over 60 km/h. Of the straight truck fatal collisions, 71.9 occurred in rural areas compared with 81.1 percent of tractor-trailer fatal collisions.

Heavy truck injury collisions averaged roughly a 50/50 split between rural and urban areas. Straight truck injury collisions occurred most frequently in urban areas (62.4 percent), and tractor-trailer injury collisions occurred most often in rural areas (62.8 percent).

Table 9. Road Classification (Urban/Rural) for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions Average 2001 - 2005

Road Classification Heavy Trucks Straight Trucks Tractor Trailers
Fatal % Injury% Total % Fatal % Injury % Total % Fatal % Injury % Total %
Urban/60 km/h or less 21.8 50.4 48.9 28.1 62.4 66.9 18.7 37.1 43.9
Rural/ over 60 km/h 78.1 49.5 51.0 71.9 37.4 33.1 81.1 62.8 56.0
Other 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 2,193 39,543 152,777 730 20,707 81,695 1,502 19,485 73,256

Records with unknown Road Classification were excluded from the table calculations.

Road Classification (Divided/Undivided) at Collision Site for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Table 10 shows that 72.0 percent of fatal heavy truck collisions and 56.9 percent of injury collisions occurred on undivided, two-way traffic roads.

Table 10. Roadway Classification (Divided vs. Undivided) for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions Average 2001 - 2005

Road Classification Heavy Trucks Straight Trucks Tractor Trailers
Fatal % Injury % Fatal % Injury % Fatal % Injury %
One-way traffic 1.4 3.4 1.9 3.9 1.1 2.8
Undivided, two-way traffic 72.0 56.9 76.6 60.2 69.7 53.4
Divided 26.0 39.2 20.5 35.3 28.8 43.3
Other 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.5
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 1,319 24,754 415 12,405 930 12,759

Only 5 jurisdictions were included because they either do not provide this data or do not code all levels.
Records with unknown Road Classification were excluded from the table calculations.

Posted Speed Limit at Collision Site for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

For heavy trucks, the highest percentage of fatal collisions occurred in the higher speed zones of 90 km/h (28.1 percent), 100 km/h or greater (26.1 percent), and 80 km/h (21.8 percent). For heavy truck injury collisions, the highest percentage occurred in the lower speed zones of 50 km/h (30.2 percent).

For straight trucks, the highest percentage of fatal collisions occurred in 80 km/h speed zones (27.2 percent), followed by 90 km/h zones (25.0 percent). For injury straight truck collisions, the highest percentage of collisions occurred in the lower 50 km/h zones, as it did for the heavy trucks combined.

For tractor-trailers, the highest percentage of fatal collisions occurred in the higher speed zones of 100 km/h or more (31.0 percent), 90 km/h zones (29.6 percent), and 80 km/h zones (19.1 percent). Injury tractor-trailer collisions had the highest percentage of collisions also in the 100 km/h or more zones at 32.1 percent.

Table 11. Posted Speed Limit at Collision Site for Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions Average 2001 - 2005

    Posted Speed Limit for Heavy Truck Casualty Collision, Average 2001-2005
Posted Speed Limit Heavy Trucks Straight Trucks Tractor-Trailers
Fatal % Injury % Fatal % Injury % Fatal % Injury %
< 40 km/h 1.0 3.9 1.9 6.1 0.7 1.5
40 km/h 0.6 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.5 0.7
50 km/h 11.2 30.2 16.1 39.9 8.7 19.6
60 km/h 5.1 9.8 5.7 11.4 4.7 8.1
70 km/h 6.0 8.1 7.2 7.6 5.6 8.7
80 km/h 21.8 12.8 27.2 12.1 19.1 13.7
90 km/h 28.1 11.7 25.0 8.6 29.6 15.1
100 km/h and over 26.1 22.0 16.1 12.9 31.0 32.1
Other 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.5
Total Percent 100 100 100 100 100 100
Total Frequency 1,773 33,684 584 17,598 1,225 16,632

Records with unknown Posted Speed Limit were excluded from the table calculations.

Vehicles in Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Collision Severity

As shown in Table 12, there were 274,186 vehicles in fatal and injury collisions on average each year: 4,081 vehicles in fatal crashes, 270,106 vehicles in injury crashes. Of all vehicles in fatal collisions, an average of 23.4 percent were involved with heavy trucks, compared with 6.4 percent in heavy truck injury collisions. Heavy trucks comprised 12.2 percent of vehicles in fatal collisions, and 3.4 percent of vehicles in injury collisions.

Of the total vehicles in heavy truck fatal collisions, there were more tractor-trailers (8.3 percent) than straight trucks (3.9 percent), on average. In heavy truck injury collisions, straight trucks comprised an average of 1.8 percent and tractor-trailers comprised an average of 1.6 percent of all vehicles.

Table 12. Vehicles Involved in Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions, 2001 - 2005 and Average

Collision Severity Vehicles Involved Collision Year Average Average %
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Fatal Collisions
Straight trucks 147 162 167 153 173 160 3.9
Other vehicles involved with straight trucks 141 221 167 179 163 174 4.3
Total vehicles involved with straight trucks 288 383 334 332 336 335 8.2
Tractor-trailers 324 347 337 361 323 338 8.3
Other vehicles involved with tractor-trailers 295 377 399 360 311 328 8.0
Total vehicles involved with tractor-trailers 619 724 636 721 634 667 16.3
Heavy trucks 471 509 504 514 496 499 12.2
Other vehicles involved with heavy trucks 414 491 448 478 448 456 11.2
Total vehicles involved with heavy trucks 885 1,000 952 992 944 955 23.4
All other vehicles in collisions 3,061 3,259 3,022 3,060 3,228 3,126 76.6
Total of all vehicles involved 3,946 4,259 3,974 4,052 4,172 4,081 100.0
Injury Collisions
Straight trucks 4,378 4,591 4,793 4,966 5,271 4,800 1.8
Other vehicles involved with straight trucks 4,436 4,465 4,836 4,936 5,076 4,750 1.8
Total vehicles involved with straight trucks 8,814 9,056 9,629 9,902 10,347 9,550 3.5
Tractor-trailers 3,889 9,056 9,629 9,902 10,347 9,550 3.5
Other vehicles involved with tractor-trailers 3,631 3,738 4.029 4,136 4,192 3,945 1.5
Total vehicles involved with tractor-trailers 7,520 7,824 8,369 8,560 8,732 8,201 3.0
Heavy trucks 8,267 8,677 9,133 9,390 9,811 9,056 3.4
Other vehicles involved with heavy trucks 7,694 7,866 8,376 8,597 8,810 8,269 3.1
Total vehicles involved with heavy trucks 15,961 16,543 17,509 17,987 18,621 17,324 6.4
All other vehicles in collisions 256,288 263,243 256,024 244,749 243,604 252,782 93.6
Total of all vehicles involved 272,249 279,786 273,533 262,736 262,225 270,106 100.0
Total Casualty Collisions
Straight trucks 4,525 4,753 4,960 5,119 5,444 4,960 1.8
Other vehicles involved with straight trucks 4,577 4,686 5,003 5,115 5,239 4,924 1.8
Total vehicles involved with straight trucks 9,102 9,439 9,983 10,234 10,683 9.884 3.6
Tractor-trailers 4,213 4,433 4,677 4,785 4,863 4,594 1.7
Other vehicles involved with tractor-trailers 3,926 4,115 4,328 4,496 4,503 4,274 1.6
Total vehicles involved with tractor-trailers 8,139 8,548 9,005 9,281 9,366 8,868 3.2
Heavy trucks 8,738 9,186 9,637 9,904 10,307 9,554 3.5
Other vehicles involved with heavy trucks 8,108 8,357 8,824 9,075 9,258 8,724 3.2
Total vehicles involved with heavy trucks 16,846 17,543 18,461 18,979 19,565 18,279 6.7
All other vehicles in collisions 259,349 266,502 259,046 247,809 246,832 255,908 93.3
Total of all vehicles involved 276,195 284,045 277,507 266,788 266,397 274,186 100.0

Victims of Heavy Truck Casualty Collisions

Vehicle Type by Collision Severity and Injury Outcome

Tables 13 and 14 present the victims of heavy truck collisions and of all other collisions for 2001 to 2005 and average. The tables show the fatalities and injuries by year of collision, average number and average percentage of victims for 2001 to 2005. It is not known how many pedestrians and bicyclists were struck by heavy trucks in multiple vehicle collisions, as the pedestrian is not necessarily associated with the striking vehicle in the database. These non-occupant victims are presented in the single-vehicle fatal collisions section of the report.

Fatalities in Heavy Truck Collisions

An average of 19.0 percent (536) of all road users killed were in heavy truck collisions, while 81.0 percent were fatalities in collisions not involving heavy trucks. Tractor-trailer fatalities (368) comprised 13.0 percent and straight trucks fatalities (178) comprised 6.4 percent of the total road user fatalities.

Table 13. Fatalities in Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks and All Other Vehicles 2001 - 2005 and Average

Collisions Involving 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average Number Average Percent
Straight Trucks
Occupants 20 25 37 30 41 31 17.2
Occupants of Other Vehicles 136 131 106 112 132 123 69.4
Pedestrians 9 19 26 19 21 19 10.6
Bicyclists 5 4 5 7 4 5 2.8
All Victims 170 179 174 168 198 178 100.0
Tractor-Trailers
Occupants 50 59 55 70 40 55 14.9
Occupants of Other Vehicles 270 292 280 281 282 281 76.3
Pedestrians 28 22 31 29 30 28 7.6
Bicyclists 5 3 5 3 6 4 1.2
All Victims 353 376 371 383 358 368 100.0
Heavy Trucks
Occupants 70 84 92 100 81 85 15.9
Occupants of Other Vehicles 397 408 379 382 405 394 73.6
Pedestrians 37 41 57 48 50 47 8.7
Bicyclists 10 7 10 10 10 9 1.8
All Victims 514 540 538 540 546 536 100.0
All Other Vehicles
Occupants 1,911 2,008 1,873 1,818 2,020 1,926 84.3
Pedestrians 299 328 322 318 297 313 13.7
Bicyclists 50 56 35 46 42 46 2.0
All Victims 2,262 2,392 2,230 2,182 2,359 2285 100.0
All Victims of All Collisions 2,776 2,932 2,768 2,722 2,905 2,821 100.0

Note: Occupants of other vehicles include drivers and passengers of all other vehicles, motorcyclists, and unknown road users.

Injuries in Heavy Truck Collisions

An average of 5.7 percent (12,052) of all road users injured were in heavy truck collisions. Straight truck injuries (6,549) comprised 3.1 percent and tractor-trailer injuries (5,747) comprised 2.7 percent of the total road user injuries in all collisions.

Table 14. Injuries in Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks and All Other Vehicles 2001 - 2005 and Average

Collisions Involving 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average Number Average Percent
Straight Trucks
Occupants 1,610 1,796 1,935 1,944 2,103 1,878 28.7
Occupants of Other Vehicles 4,186 4,299 4,314 4,522 4,529 4,370 66.7
Pedestrians 177 201 200 219 232 206 3.1
Bicyclists 88 98 75 106 111 96 1.5
All Victims 6,061 6,394 6,524 6,791 6,975 6,549 100.0
Tractor-Trailers
Occupants 1,369 1,462 1,462 1,560 1,571 1,485 25.8
Occupants of Other Vehicles 3,904 4,058 4,153 4,297 4,387 4,160 72.4
Pedestrians 70 83 83 75 77 78 1.4
Bicyclists 23 15 22 26 37 25 0.4
All Victims 6,061 6,394 6,524 6,791 6,975 6,549 100.0
Heavy Trucks
Occupants 2,979 3,258 3,397 3,504 3,674 3,362 27.9
Occupants of Other Vehicles 7,885 8,118 8,208 8,554 8,673 8,288 68.8
Pedestrians 245 284 281 292 309 282 2.3
Bicyclists 111 113 97 132 148 120 1.0
All Victims 11,220 11,773 11,983 12,482 12,804 12,052 100.0
All Other Vehicles
Occupants 184,512 190,612 183,825 173,943 171,721 180,923 89.9
Pedestrians 13,102 13,002 12,871 12,123 12,688 12,757 6.3
Bicyclists 7,607 7,319 7,410 7,684 7,538 7,512 3.7
All Victims 205,221 210,933 204,106 193,750 191,947 201,191 100.0
All Victims of All Collisions 216,441 222,706 216,089 206,232 204,751 213,244 100.0

Note: Occupants of other vehicles include drivers and passengers of all other vehicles, motorcyclists, and unknown road users.

Notes:

  1. Total percentages may not add up due to rounding.
  2. Straight truck collisions and tractor-trailer collisions are not mutually exclusive because a straighttruck collision may include a tractor-trailer. Therefore, the number of heavy truck victims is not the sum of straight truck and tractor-trailer victims.

Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

Casualty Collisions

As shown in Table 15, single-vehicle tractor-trailer fatal collisions comprised 60.9 percent of singlevehicle heavy truck fatal collisions.

Table 15. Heavy Trucks in Single-Vehicle Casualty Collisions 2001 - 2005 and Average

Collision Severity by Vehicle Type 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average Number Average %
Fatal Collision
Straight Trucks 21 30 47 32 42 34 39.1
Tractor-Trailers 50 57 60 59 42 54 60.9
Total Heavy Trucks 71 87 107 91 84 88 100.0
Injury Collision
Straight Trucks 732 810 822 870 967 840 49.3
Tractor-Trailers 825 836 839 876 944 864 50.7
Total Heavy Trucks 1,557 1,646 1,661 1,746 1,911 1,704 100.0
Total Casualty Collisions
Straight Trucks 753 840 869 902 1,009 875 48.8
Tractor-Trailers 875 893 899 935 986 918 51.2
Total Heavy Trucks 1,628 1,733 1,768 1,837 1,995 1,792 100.0

Single-Vehicle Collision Characteristics

This section focuses on collision characteristics for fatal single-vehicle heavy truck collisions.

Hour of Collision – Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

Figure 6 shows the percentages of single-vehicle heavy truck fatal collisions and heavy truck VKT by hour of collision. Single-vehicle heavy truck fatal collisions were higher than heavy truck exposure from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM. Table 16 shows that 64.3 percent of fatal single-vehicle straight truck collisions occurred between 6:00 A.M. and 6:00 P.M., on average, compared with 57.2 percent for

Figure 6. Percentage of Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Fatal Collisions and Heavy Truck Exposure by Hour of Collision, Average 2001 to 2005

Table 16. Hour of Collision for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Hour of Collision Straight Trucks % Tractor-Trailers % Heavy Trucks %
Midnight to 00:59 2.4 4.9 3.9
01:00 to 01:59 4.2 3.4 3.7
02:00 to 02:59 3.6 2.7 3.0
03:00 to 03:59 2.4 3.0 2.8
04:00 to 04:59 2.4 4.6 3.7
05:00 to 05:59 3.0 2.7 2.8
06:00 to 06:59 3.0 4.9 4.2
07:00 to 07:59 2.4 3.4 3.0
08:00 to 08:59 7.7 4.2 5.6
09:00 to 09:59 4.8 3.8 4.2
10:00 to 10:59 7.1 7.2 7.2
11:00 to 11:59 7.1 3.4 4.9
12:00 to 12:59 4.2 4.9 4.6
13:00 to 13:59 6.0 4.9 5.3
14:00 to 14:59 7.7 4.2 5.6
15:00 to 15:59 4.8 3.4 3.69
16:00 to 16:59 3.6 7.2 5.8
17:00 to 17:59 6.0 5.7 5.8
18:00 to 18:59 3.0 4.2 3.7
19:00 to 19:59 2.4 3.8 3.2
20:00 to 20:59 3.6 4.2 3.9
21:00 to 21:59 1.2 3.0 2.3
22:00 to 22:59 4.2 3.8 3.9
23:00 to 23:59 3.6 2.7 3.0
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 168 264 432

Records with unknown Hour of Collision were excluded from the table calculations

Month of Collision – Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

Table 17 shows that on the five-year average, fatal single-vehicle heavy truck collisions increased overall for both truck types over the averaged months. For straight truck collisions, March had the lowest percentage of collisions (3.5 percent), while the lowest percentage for tractor-trailers was in January and April (5.6 percent each). The highest percentage was recorded in November for both straight trucks (16.3 percent) and tractor-trailers (12.3 percent). A majority of single-vehicle fatal collisions occurred from July to December -- 62.8 percent for straight trucks and 60.8 percent for tractor-trailers.

Figure 7. Months of Collision for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions Average 2001 - 2005

Table 17. Month of Collision for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions Average 2001 - 2005

Month of Collision Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks %
January 5.8 5.6 5.7
February 6.4 6.7 6.6
March 3.5 6.0 5.0
April 9.9 5.6 7.3
May 5.8 8.6 7.5
June 5.8 6.7 6.4
July 10.5 9.3 9.8
August 7.6 10.5 9.3
September 8.7 9.7 9.3
October 12.8 9.0 10.5
November 16.3 12.3 13.9
December 7.0 10.1 8.9
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 172 268 440

Records with unknown Month of Collision were excluded from the table calculations.

Weather Conditions – Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

For fatal single-vehicle collisions, the weather was clear for 70.2 percent of the straight truck collisions and 64.9 percent of the tractor-trailer collisions.

Table 18. Weather Conditions for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Weather Conditions Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks %
Clear 70.2 64.9 67.0
Cloudy 15.2 17.0 16.3
Rain 7.6 7.9 7.8
Snow 0.6 6.4 4.1
Sleet, Hail 1.8 0.0 0.7
Bad Visibility 3.5 2.6 3.0
Wind 1.2 0.8 0.9
Other 0.0 0.4 0.2
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 171 265 436

Records with unknown Weather Conditions were excluded from the table calculations.

Environmental Road Surface Condition at Collision Site for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

About 73.0 percent of single-vehicle fatal collisions involving heavy trucks happened where the road surface was reported as dry.

Table 19. Environmental Road Surface Condition at Collision Site for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Environment Road Surface Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks %
Dry 73.5 72.3 72.8
Wet 11.8 14.2 13.3
Fresh Snow 4.7 4.5 4.6
Ice/Packed Snow 4.7 5.2 5.0
Other (e.g. slush, sand, gravel muddy) 5.3 3.8 4.3
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 170 267 437

Records with unknown Road Surface Condition were excluded from the table calculations

Collision Configuration – Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

The collision configuration is a description of the entire collision. Table 20 shows that the largest configuration category was ran off the road (41.7 percent). Other single-vehicle configurations include collision events in which the vehicle hit a pedestrian or a road barrier, jackknifed, caught fire, spilled the cargo, or rolled over on the roadway.

Table 20. Collision Configuration for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Collision Configuration Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks %
Ran Off Left or Right Side 41.7 40.1 40.7
Other single vehicle 37.5 39.3 38.6
Hit Moving Object 18.5 17.9 18.1
Hit Stationary Object 2.4 2.8 2.6
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 168 252 420

Records with unknown Collision Configuration were excluded from the table calculations.

Road Classification (Urban/Rural) at Collision Site for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

The majority of fatal single-vehicle heavy truck crashes occurred in areas deemed “rural”. See page 15 for the definition of “urban” and “rural”. Tractor-trailers had more fatal single-vehicle crashes in rural areas (68.5 percent) than did straight trucks (59.7 percent). Straight trucks had more fatal single-vehicle crashes in urban areas (40.3 percent) than did tractor-trailers (31.5 percent). Manitoba did not provide this data from 2002 to 2005.

Table 21. Road Classification (Urban/Rural) for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions Average 2001 - 2005

Road Classification Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks %
Rural / over 60 km/h 59.7 68.5 65.2
Urban/ 60 km/h or less 40.3 31.5 34.8
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 154 260 414

Records with unknown Road Classification were excluded from the table calculations.

Road Classification (Divided/Undivided) at Collision Site for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

About 67.3 percent of the fatal single-vehicle heavy truck collisions happened on undivided roads with two-way traffic.

Table 22. Roadway Classification (Divided vs. Undivided) for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Road Classification Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks %
Undivided, 2-way traffic 66.0 68.1 67.3
Divided 25.5 29.2 37.8
One-way traffic 4.2 2.0 2.8
Other 4.3 0.7 2.0
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 94 154 248

Only five jurisdictions provide this data. The other jurisdictions either do not provide it or do not code all levels of the data element. Records with unknown Road Classification were excluded from the table calculations.

Posted Speed Limit at Collision Site for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

Fatal single-vehicle straight truck collisions occurred most often in 50 km/h speed zones, followed by zones of 100 km/h or more, 90 km/h, and 80 km/h. Fatal single-vehicle tractor-trailer collisions occurred most often in 100 km/h or more zones, followed by 90 km/h, 50 km/h zones, and 80 km/h zones.

Table 23. Posted Speed Limit at Collision Site for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Posted Speed Limit Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks %
<40 km/h 5.5 1.9 3.2
40 km/h 0.9 1.9 1.6
50 km/h 30.0 22.3 25.0
60 km/h 8.2 6.3 7.0
70 km/h 3.6 5.3 4.8
80 km/h 13.6 12.6 13.0
90 km/h 14.6 22.8 19.9
100 km/h and over 23.6 26.7 25.6
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 110 206 316

Only 12 jurisdictions provide this data element.
Records with unknown Posted Speed Limit were excluded from the table calculations.

Road Alignment at Collision Site for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

The majority of fatal single-vehicle collisions involving heavy trucks occurred most frequently on roads reported as “straight, level”. About 34.2 percent of tractor-trailer and 24.8 percent of straight truck fatal single vehicle collisions happened on curved roads.

Table 24. Road Alignment at Collision Site for Fatal-Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Road Alignment Straight Trucks % Tractor-Trailers % Heavy Trucks %
Straight, Level 62.7 53.1 56.8
Straight, Grade 10.8 10.4 10.6
Curved, Level 11.5 14.2 13.2
Curved, Grade 13.3 20.0 17.4
Top of Hill 0.6 1.2 0.9
Bottom of Hill 1.2 1.2 1.2
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 166 260 426

Records with unknown Road Alignment were excluded from the table calculations.

Vehicle Manoeuvre for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions

Table 25 compares heavy trucks with light-duty vehicles for vehicle manoeuvre in fatal single-vehicle collisions. All these vehicle types were most often travelling straight ahead when the crash occurred. About 13.5 percent of straight trucks were reversing when the collision occurred. There were 23 pedestrians killed in these reversing collisions – 18 by straight trucks and 5 by tractor-trailers. By comparison, about 1.2 percent of light-duty vehicles were reversing at the time of the collision killing 42 pedestrians. Alberta does not provide this data element.

Table 25. Vehicle Manoeuvre at Moment of Impact for Fatal Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions, Average 2001 - 2005

Vehicle Manoeuvre Straight Truck % Tractor-Trailer % Heavy Trucks % Light-Duty Vehicles %
Travelling Straight Ahead 60.9 77.5 71.4 85.0
Turning Left 3.8 3.5 3.6 2.6
Turning Right 9.8 5.3 6.9 1.1
Changing Lanes 1.5 0.4 0.8 1.1
Merging 0.0 0.9 0.6 0.3
Reversing 13.5 2.2 6.4 1.2
Passing 1.5 0.0 0.6 2.0
Slowing/Stopping in Traffic 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5
Starting in Traffic 2.3 2.6 2.5 0.1
Left Roadside 0.0 1.3 0.8 0.2
Stopped/Parked Legally 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.1
Stopped/Parked Illegally 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.0
Swerved 2.3 0.4 1.1 0.3
Unspecified Manoeuvre 0.8 0.0 0.3 0.1
Other Manoeuvre 3.0 4.0 3.6 5.4
Negotiated a Curve 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Making a U-turn 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 133 227 360 4,374

Records with unknown Vehicle Manoeuvre were excluded from the table calculations.

Drivers of Heavy Trucks in Single-Vehicle Casualty Collisions

Driver Age

As shown in Table 26, drivers aged 35-44 years were the largest age group of drivers in heavy truck casualty collisions. Among fatal collisions, about 9.7 percent of straight truck drivers and 5.1 percent of tractor-trailer drivers were under 25 years old.

Table 26. Drivers of Heavy Trucks in Single-Vehicle Casualty Collisions by Age Group, Average 2001 - 2005

Age Straight Trucks Tractor Trailer Heavy Trucks
Fatal % Injury % Total % Fatal % Injury % Total % Fatal % Injury % Total %
Under 25 9.7 12.8 11.5 5.1 5.7 5.6 6.6 9.4 8.8
25-34 21.4 23.4 23.2 21.5 24.4 24.1 21.5 23.9 23.6
35-44 30.4 28.8 29.2 31.6 31.5 31.1 31.2 30.1 30.1
45-54 23.0 21.3 22.2 25.7 24.5 25.1 24.8 22.8 23.6
55-64 12.5 10.8 11.1 14.2 12.5 12.4 13.7 11.6 11.7
65 and older 2.9 2.9 2.8 1.9 1.5 1.6 2.2 2.2 2.2
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 782 22,223 116,884 1,653 19,970 101,660 2,435 42,193 218,544

Records with unknown Driver Age were excluded from the table calculations.

Jurisdiction of Driver’s Licence

About 98.9 percent of heavy truck drivers held Canadian licences and 0.9 percent held U.S. licences. The remaining 0.2 percent was foreign, unlicensed, or other type of licensees. Thirteen heavy truck drivers were unlicensed; one of the unlicensed drivers was in a fatal collision.

Over the five-year period, 24 U.S. drivers were involved in fatal collisions: 7 drivers in 2004, 6 drivers in 2003, 5 drivers in 2002, 4 drivers in 2001, and 2 drivers in 2005.

Victims of Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions by Road User Type

Table 27 shows that 57.8 percent of fatalities and 88.3 percent of the injuries in these single-vehicle collisions were occupants of the heavy trucks; the remainder were pedestrians.

Table 27. Victims of Single-Vehicle Heavy Truck Collisions by Vehicle Type Average 2001 - 2005

Road User Type Straight Truck Tractor Trailer Heavy Trucks
Fatal % Injury % Total % Fatal % Injury % Total % Fatal % Injury % Total %
Occupants of Heavy Trucks 56.8 82.6 81.7 58.5 94.2 92.2 57.8 88.3 86.9
Pedestrians 43.2 17.4 18.3 41.5 5.8 7.8 42.2 11.7 13.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total Frequency 176 4,869 5,045 272 4,754 5,026 448 9,619 10,067

Explanatory Notes:

Casualty collisions include all reportable motor vehicle crashes that result in fatalities or injuries. Fatalities include all those who die as a result of involvement in a reportable traffic collision within 30 days of its occurrence, except for Quebec (8 days). Injuries include all those who suffer any visible injury or complain of pain.

The collisions shown for heavy trucks are not the sum of straight trucks and tractor-trailers. If a straight truck and a tractor-trailer were involved in a collision, a collision would be shown under each truck type. Under the category of heavy trucks, that same collision would be counted as one collision. The collisions shown for vehicles other than heavy trucks are those collisions not involving heavy trucks.

The other vehicles in collisions with heavy trucks are not the sum of other vehicles involved with straight trucks and tractor-trailers. If a straight truck, tractor-trailer and other vehicle(s) were involved in a collision, a double count(s) would occur in one of the truck types, and in other vehicles involved in collisions with straight trucks and/or tractor-trailers. Under the category of other vehicles involved with heavy trucks, each vehicle was counted once. Double counts would occur in other vehicles involved in collisions with straight trucks and/or tractor-trailers. All other vehicles in collisions were those not involved in collisions with heavy trucks.

Sources:

National Collision Database (NCDB), 2000-2005, Transport Canada, Road Safety.

Road Safety Vision 2010, Annual Report 2002, Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA).

Canadian Vehicle Survey, Statistics Canada, 2001-2005.