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Canada Motor Vehicle safety standard - 108 - Lighting and Retroflective Devices followed by the Technical Standards Document

To view the entire text of CMVSS 108, click here : Section 108-Lighting and Retroflective Devices or the Technical Standards Document.  (You will have to use the BACK key on your browser to return to the Trailer Information Guide.)
                     

Information on trailers only, is provided below.

IMPORTANT NOTE FOR USERS

Users of this extract are cautioned that it has been prepared for use as a ready reference and has no legal force or effect. For all purposes of interpreting and applying these regulations, users should consult the Revised Status of Canada, 1985, and any pertinent amending statutory instruments.


Lighting System and Retroreflective Devices

General

108. (1) Except as otherwise provided by this section, every trailer shall be equipped with the lamps, retroreflective devices and associated equipment required by Technical Standards Document No. 108, Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment, as amended from time to time (hereinafter referred to as TSD 108).

(3) Except as otherwise provided by this section, lamps, retroreflective devices and associated equipment required by this section shall be designed, installed and visible in accordance with the requirements of TSD 108, except Figures 3, 11 to 14, 16 and 18 to 24.

(4) Lamps, retroreflective devices and associated equipment on a vehicle may conform to the applicable SAE standards and recommended practices contained in the 1994 SAE Handbook instead of the versions of the applicable SAE standards and recommended practices referred to in this section or TSD 108.

(5) The identifying marks, electrical characteristics and illumination characteristics of every type of bulb and every type of sealed beam lamp used in lighting equipment required by this section, as well as the dimensional specifications of the filament location, of the base and of the socket of the bulb or sealed beam lamp and the dimensions of every mounting ring and retaining ring for a sealed beam lamp, shall be

(a) specified for the type of bulb or sealed beam lamp in

(i) a standard or recommended practice issued by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),

(ii) a regulation issued by the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), or

(iii) a standard issued by the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC); or

(b) provided, by the vehicle manufacturer at the Director General's request, to the Director General, Motor Vehicle Safety Directorate, Transport Canada, 330 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N5.

(6) Wherever the word "filament" appears in this section, TSD 108 or an SAE standard or recommended practice, it may be read as "arc" where the requirement applies to a lamp in which light is produced by a gaseous discharge tube, or as "light-emitting diode junction" where the requirement applies to a lamp in which light is produced by a light-emitting diode.

Technical Standards Document No. 108

Required Motor Vehicle Lighting Equipment -- Section S5.1 of TSD 108

(10) Where reflective material referred to in paragraph S5.1.1.4 of TSD 108 is applied to a non-vertical surface, the entrance angle used to demonstrate that the material conforms to the performance standards prescribed by that paragraph shall be the sum of the entrance angle specified in Table 1 or Table 1A of SAE Standard J594f, Reflex Reflectors (January 1977) and the angle by which the material deviates from the vertical, measured on the horizontal centreline of the sheeting.

Location of Required Equipment -- Section S5.3 of TSD 108

(14) For the purposes of paragraph S5.3.1 and Table II of TSD 108, the location of rear identification lamps on a van trailer with side-opening rear doors conforms to that paragraph, if the lamps are located as high as practicable

(a) above or on the rear doors, where the vertical face of the header rail, measured on the vertical longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, extends at least 25 mm above the rear doors; or

(b) above or below or on the rear doors, where the vertical face of the header rail, measured on the vertical longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, extends less than 25 mm above the rear doors.

Conspicuity Systems -- Section S5.7 of TSD 108

(21) Notwithstanding section S5.7 of TSD 108, the colour of retroreflective sheeting applied to a vehicle pursuant to paragraphs S5.7.1.4.1(a) and S5.7.1.4.2 of TSD 108 may be white, yellow, white and yellow, or white and red, in accordance with paragraphs 3.1.3, 3.1.2 and 3.1.1 of SAE Standard J578, Color Specification (May 1988).

(22) Where retroreflective sheeting referred to in paragraph S5.7.1.2 of TSD 108 is applied to a non-vertical surface, the entrance angle used to demonstrate compliance with the photometric requirements prescribed by that paragraph shall be the sum of the value shown in column 1 of Figure 29 of TSD 108 and the angle by which the material deviates from the vertical, measured at the horizontal centreline of the sheeting.

(23) The retroreflective sheeting applied to the rear of a trailer pursuant to paragraph S5.7.1.4.1(c) of TSD 108 shall be located not more than 760 mm above the road surface and extend to within 450 mm of the extreme outer edges of the trailer.

(24) Where a vehicle is equipped with yellow retroreflective sheeting, the sheeting shall meet the photometric requirements of the following table:

TABLE

  Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (cd/lx/m2)
Grade Entrance Angle (in degrees) Observation Angle of 0.2° Observation Angle of 0.5°
DOT-C2 -4 188 49
DOT-C2 30 188 49
DOT-C2 45 45 11
DOT-C3 -4 124 32
DOT-C3 30 124 32
DOT-C3 45 30 8
DOT-C4 -4 94 25
DOT-C4 30 94 25
DOT-C4 45 23 6


Technical Standards Document Number 108
Lamps, reflective devices and associated equipment

Introduction

This Technical Standards Document reproduces the technical content of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108, "Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment", issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States Department of Transportation. The general requirements governing Technical Standards Documents (TSD) are set out in section 12 of the Motor Vehicle Safety Act, which allows for the use of a TSD to incorporate enactments of a foreign government. Because the requirements of the Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations may change the provisions of a TSD, this Document should be read in conjunction with the Motor Vehicle Safety Act and sections 108 and 108.1 of the Regulations. As a guide, where modifications have been made, they are indicated in the margin within parentheses ( ) when they refer to section 108 and within braces { } when they refer to section 108.1. Amendments to this TSD will be issued from time to time to incorporate revisions made to the reference document; these amendments will come into force six months after publication of the revised TSD and will be announced in the Canada Gazette Part I.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Technical Standards Document
Number 108

LAMPS, REFLECTIVE DEVICES AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

Introduction

S1. Scope

S2. Purpose

S4. Definitions

S5. Requirements

S5.1 Required motor vehicle lighting equipment

S5.2 Other requirements

S5.3 Location of required equipment

S5.4 Equipment combinations

S5.5 Special wiring requirements

S5.7 Conspicuity Systems

S6. Subreferenced SAE Standards and Recommended Practices

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1A: Required Percentages of
Minimum Candlepower of Figure 1B

Figure 1B: Minimum and Maximum Allowable Candlepower Values

Figure 1C: Sum of the Percentages of Grouped Minimum Candlepower

Figure 29: Minimum Photometric Performance of Retroreflective Sheeting

Figures 30-1 through 30-4: Trailer Conspicuity Treatment Examples

LIST OF TABLES

Table I: Required Motor Vehicle Lighting Equipment other than Headlamps (Vehicles of
2.05 m or more Overall Width)

Table II: Location of Required Equipment (Vehicles of 2.05 m or moreOverall
Width)

Table III: Required Motor Vehicle Lighting Equipment (Vehicles of less than 2.05 m
Overall Width)

Table IV: Location of Required Equipment (Vehicles of less than 2.05 m
Overall Width)

Technical Standards Document Number 108

LAMPS, REFLECTIVE DEVICES AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

 

The text of this document is based on the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, part 571, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108, LAMPS, REFLECTIVE DEVICES AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, and subsequent amendments, revised as of October 1, 1992, up to and including the Final Rule, Docket 94-104, Notice 2, published in the Federal Register on April 20, 1995 (Vol. 60, No. 76, p. 19681).

S1. Scope. This Technical Standards Document (TSD) specifies requirements for lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment fitted to new motor vehicles.

S2. Purpose. The purpose of this TSD is to reduce traffic accidents, deaths, and injuries resulting from traffic accidents by providing adequate illumination of the roadway and by enhancing the conspicuity of motor vehicles on the public roads so that their presence is perceived and their signals understood, both in daylight and in darkness or other conditions of reduced visibility.

S4. Definitions.

Effective projected luminous lens area means that area of the projection on a plane perpendicular to the lamp axis of that portion of the light-emitting surface that directs light to the photometric test pattern, and does not include mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or rims that may glow or produce small areas of increased intensity as a result of uncontrolled light from small areas (0.5 deg. radius around the test point). (Surface lumineuse efficace d'une lentille)

Flash means a cycle of activation and deactivation of a lamp by automatic means continuing until stopped either automatically or manually. (Clignotement)

Multiple compartment lamp means a device which gives its indication by two or more separately lighted areas which are joined by one or more common parts, such as a housing or lens. (Feu à compartiments multiples)

Multiple lamp arrangement means an array of two or more separate lamps on each side of the vehicle which operate together to give a signal. (Arrangement à feux multiples)

S5. Requirements.

S5.1 Required motor vehicle lighting equipment.

S5.1.1 Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of this S5.1.1, each vehicle shall be equipped with at least the number of lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment specified in Tables I and III, as applicable. Required equipment shall be designed to conform to the SAE Standards or Recommended Practices referenced in those tables. Table I applies to trailers, 2.05 m or more (80 or more inches) in overall width. Table III applies to trailers, less than 2.05 m (80 inches) in overall width.

S5.1.1.3 Intermediate side marker devices are not required on vehicles less than 9.1 m (30 feet) in overall length.

S5.1.1.4 Reflective material conforming to Federal Specification L-S-300, Sheeting and Tape, Reflective; Non-exposed Lens, Adhesive Backing, September 7, 1965, may be used for side reflex reflectors if this material, as used on the vehicle, meets the performance standards in either Table I or Table IA of SAE Standard J594f, Reflex Reflectors, January 1977.

S5.1.1.6 Instead of the photometric values specified in Table 1 of SAE Standards J222 December 1970 or J585e September 1977, a tail lamp shall meet the minimum percentage specified in Figure 1A of the corresponding minimum allowable value specified in Figure 1B. The maximum candlepower output of a tail lamp shall not exceed that prescribed in Figure 1B, or in Figure 1B at H or above. If the sum of the percentages of the minimum candlepower measured at the test points is not less than that specified for each group listed in Figure 1C, a tail lamp is not required to meet the minimum photometric value at each test point specified in SAE Standards J222 or J585e respectively.

S5.1.1.8 For each motor vehicle less than 9.1 m (30 feet) in overall length, the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for side marker lamps specified in SAE Standard J592e Clearance, Side Marker, and Identification Lamps, July 1972, may be met for all inboard test points at a distance of 4.6 m (15 feet) from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and located midway between the front and rear side marker lamps.

S5.1.1.9 A boat trailer whose overall width is 2.05 m (80 inches) or more need not be equipped with both front and rear clearance lamps provided an amber (to front) and red (to rear) clearance lamp is located at or near the midpoint on each side so as to indicate its extreme width.

S5.1.1.10 Multiple license plate lamps and backup lamps may be used to fulfill the requirements of the SAE Standards applicable to such lamps referenced in Tables I and III.

S5.1.1.11 A stop lamp that is not optically combined, as defined by SAE Information Report J387 Terminology - Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, with a turn signal lamp, shall remain activated when the turn signal lamp is flashing.

S5.1.1.14 A trailer that is less than 760 mm (30 inches) in overall width may be equipped with only one tail lamp, stop lamp, and rear reflex reflector, which shall be located at or near its vertical centerline.

S5.1.1.15 A trailer that is less than 1.8 m (6 feet) in overall length, including the trailer tongue, need not be equipped with front side marker lamps and front side reflex reflectors.

S5.1.1.16 A lamp designed to use a type of bulb that has not been assigned a mean spherical candlepower rating by its manufacturer and is not listed in SAE Standard J573d, Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units, December 1968, shall meet the applicable requirements of this TSD when used with any bulb of the type specified by the lamp manufacturer, operated at the bulb's design voltage. A lamp that contains a sealed-in bulb shall meet these requirements with the bulb operated at the bulb's design voltage.

FIGURE 1A - REQUIRED PERCENTAGES OF MINIMUM CANDLE POWER OF FIGURE 1B

Test points (deg)

Turn signal

Stop

Tail

10U, 10D 5L, 5R

20

20

20

5U, 5D 20L, 20R

12.5

12.5

15

5U, 5D 10L, 10R

37.5

37.5

40

5U, 5D V

87.5

87.5

90

H 10L, 10R

50

50

40

H 5L, 5R

100

100

100

H V

100

100

100

Note. - Minimum design candlepower requirements are determined by multiplying the percentages given in this Figure by the minimum allowable candlepower values in Figure 1B. The resulting values shall be truncated after one digit to the right of the decimal point.

FIGURE 1B - MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CANDLEPOWER VALUES

Lamp

Lighted sections

1

2

3

Stop

80/300

95/360

110/420

Tail1

2/18

3.5/20

5.0/25

Red turn signal

80/300

95/360

110/420

Yellow turn signal rear

130/750

150/900

175/1050

1 Maximum at H or above.

 

FIGURE 1C - SUM OF THE PERCENTAGES OF GROUPED MINIMUM CANDLEPOWER

 

Group and test points

Turn signal

Stop

Tail

1 10U-5L, 5U-20L, 5D-20L, 10D-5L

65

65

70

2 5U-10L, H-10L, 5D-10L

125

125

120

3 H-5L, 5U-V, H-V, 5D-V, H-5R

475

475

480

4 5U-10R, H-10R, 5D-10R

125

125

120

5 10U-5R, 5U-20R, 5D-20R, 10D-5R

65

65

70

S5.1.1.17 Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp shall meet the applicable requirements of this TSD when tested with a bulb whose filament is positioned within ± .25 mm (± .010 inch) of the nominal design position specified in SAE Standard J573d, Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units, December 1968, or specified by the bulb manufacturer.

S5.1.1.26 On a motor vehicle whose overall width is less than 2.05 m (80 inches):

(a) The functional lighted lens area of a single compartment stop lamp and a single compartment rear turn signal lamp shall be not less than 50 square centimeters.

If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used to meet the photometric requirements for stop lamps and rear turn signal lamps, the functional lighted lens area of each compartment or lamp shall be at least 22 square centimeters, provided the combined area is at least 50 square centimeters.

S5.1.1.29 A trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in conformance with paragraph S5.7 of this TSD need not be equipped with the reflex reflectors required by Table I of this TSD if the conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the reflex reflectors required by Table I.

S5.1.2 Plastic materials used for optical parts, such as lenses and reflectors, shall conform to SAE Recommended Practice J576c, May 1970, except that:

(a) Plastic lenses used for inner lenses or those covered by another material and not exposed directly to sunlight shall meet the requirements of paragraphs 3.4 and 4.2 of SAE J576c, when covered by the outer lens or other material;

(b) After the outdoor exposure test, the haze and loss of surface luster of plastic materials used for lamp lenses shall not be greater than 30 percent haze as measured by ASTM-1003-61, Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastic; and

(c) After the outdoor exposure test, plastic materials used for reflex reflectors and for lenses used in front of reflex reflectors shall not show surface deterioration, crazing, dimensional changes, color bleeding, delamination, loss of surface luster, or haze that exceeds 7 percent as measured under ASTM D 1003-61.

S5.1.3 No additional lamp, reflective device or other motor vehicle equipment shall be installed that impairs the effectiveness of lighting equipment required by thisTSD.

S5.1.5The color in all lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment to which this TDS applies shall comply with SAE Standard J578c, Color Specification for Electric Signal Lighting Devices, February 1977.

S5.2 Other requirements.

S5.2.1 The words "it is recommended that", "recommendations", or "should be" appearing in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice referenced or subreferenced in this TSD shall be read as setting forth mandatory requirements.

S5.3 Location of required equipment.

S5.3.1 Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of S5.3.1, each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle other than glazing that is not designed to be removed except for repair, in accordance with the requirements of Table I and Table III, as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II [trailers 2.05 m or more (80 or more inches) in overall width] or Table IV [trailers less than 2.05 m (80 inches) in overall width], as applicable.

and , as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II [trailers (80 or more inches) in overall width] or [trailers less than (80 inches) in overall width], as applicable.and , as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II [trailers (80 or more inches) in overall width] or [trailers less than (80 inches) in overall width], as applicable.and , as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II [trailers (80 or more inches) in overall width] or [trailers less than (80 inches) in overall width], as applicable.and , as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II [trailers (80 or more inches) in overall width] or [trailers less than (80 inches) in overall width], as applicable.and , as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II [trailers (80 or more inches) in overall width] or [trailers less than (80 inches) in overall width], as applicable.Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of S5.3.1, each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle other than glazing that is not designed to be removed except for repair, in accordance with the requirements of and , as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II [trailers (80 or more inches) in overall width] or [trailers less than (80 inches) in overall width], as applicable.

S5.3.1.1 Except as provided in S5.3.1.1.1, each lamp and reflective device shall be located so that it meets the visibility requirements specified in any applicable SAE Standard or Recommended Practice. In addition, no part of the vehicle shall prevent a tail lamp, stop lamp or turn signal lamp from meeting its photometric output at any applicable group of test points specified in Figures 1C and 2, or prevent any other lamp from meeting the photometric output at any test point specified in any applicable SAE Standard or Recommended Practice. However, if motor vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, and winches) prevents compliance with this paragraph by any required lamp or reflective devices, an auxiliary lamp or device meeting the requirements of this paragraph shall be provided.

S5.3.1.1.1 Clearance lamps may be mounted at a location other than on the front and rear, if necessary, to indicate the overall width of a vehicle or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle, and at such a location that they need not be visible at 45 degrees inboard.

S5.3.1.3 On a trailer, the amber front side reflex reflectors and amber front side marker lamps may be located as far forward as practicable, exclusive of the trailer tongue.

S5.3.1.4 When the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of a vehicle, rear clearance lamps need not meet the requirement of Table II that they be located as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle.

S5.4 Equipment combinations

Two or more lamps, reflective devices, or items of associated equipment may be combined if the requirements for each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment are met, with the following exceptions:

 

No clearance lamp shall be combined optically, as defined by SAE Information Report J387 Terminology - Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, with any tail lamp.

S5.5 Special wiring requirements.

S5.5.4 The stop lamps on each vehicle shall be activated upon application of the service brakes.

S5.5.10 The wiring requirements for lighting equipment in use are:

(a) Turn signal lamps and hazard warning signal lamps shall be wired to flash;

(b) Side marker lamps may be wired to flash for signaling purposes;

(d) All other lamps shall be wired to be steady-burning.

S5.7 Conspicuity Systems

Each trailer of 2.05 m or more (80 or more inches) overall width, and with a GVWR over 4,536 kg (10,000 lbs.), except a trailer designed exclusively for living or office use, shall be equipped with either retroreflective sheeting that meets the requirements of S5.7.1, reflex reflectors that meet the requirements of S5.7.2, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors that meet the requirement of S5.7.3.

S5.7.1 Retroreflective sheeting. Each trailer to which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.2 or S5.7.3 shall be equipped with retroreflective sheeting that conforms to the requirements specified in S5.7.1.1 through S5.7.1.5.

S5.7.1.1 Construction. Retroreflective sheeting shall consist of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with retroreflective elements embedded or suspended beneath the film so as to form a non-exposed retroreflective optical system.

S5.7.1.2 Performance requirements.Retroreflective sheeting shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-90, Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control, for Type V Sheeting, except for the photometric requirements, and shall meet the minimum photometric performance requirements specified in Figure 29.

S5.7.1.3 Sheeting pattern, dimensions, and relative coefficients of retroreflection

(a) Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied in a pattern of alternating white and red color segments to the side and rear of each trailer, and in white to the upper rear corners of each trailer, in the locations specified in S5.7.1.4, and Figures 30-1 through 30-4, as appropriate.

(b) Except for a segment that is trimmed to clear obstructions, or lengthened to provide red sheeting near red lamps, each white or red segment shall have a length of 300 mm ± 150 mm.

(c) Neither white nor red sheeting shall represent more than two thirds of the aggregate of any continuous strip marking the width of a trailer, or any continuous or broken strip marking its length.

(d) Retroreflective sheeting shall have a width of not less than 50 mm (Grade DOT-C2), 75 mm (Grade DOT-C3), or 100 mm (Grade DOT-C4).

(e) The coefficients for retroreflection of each segment of red or white sheeting shall be not less than the minimum values specified in Figure 29 of this TSD for grades DOT-C2, DOT-C3, and DOT-C4.

S5.7.1.4 Location.

(a) Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to each trailer on the side and rear as specified below, but need not be applied to discontinuous surfaces such as outside ribs, stake post pickets on platform trailers, and external protruding beams, or to items of equipment such as door hinges and lamp bodies.

(b) The edge of white sheeting shall not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any lamp that is required by this TSD.

(c) The edge of red sheeting shall not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any amber lamp that is required by this TSD.

S5.7.1.4.1 Rear. Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to the rear of each trailer as follows, except that Element 2 is not required for container chassis or for platform trailers without bulkheads, and Element 3 is not required for trailers without underride protection devices:

(a) Element 1: A strip of sheeting, as horizontal as practicable, in alternating colors across the full width of the trailer, as close to the extreme edges as practicable, and as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the stripe centerline with the trailer at curb mass.

(b) Element 2: Two pairs of white strips of sheeting, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm long of grade DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, applied horizontally and vertically to the right and left upper contours of the body, as viewed from the rear, as close to the top of the trailer and as far apart as practicable. If the perimeter of the body, as viewed from the rear, is other than rectangular, the strips may be applied along the perimeter, as close as practicable to the uppermost and outermost areas of the rear of the body on the left and right sides.


(c) Element 3: A strip of sheeting in alternating colors across the full width of the horizontal member of the rear underride protection device. Grade DOT C2 material not less than 38 mm wide may be used.

S5.7.1.4.2 Side. Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to each side of a trailer as follows:

(a) A strip of sheeting, as horizontal as practicable, in alternating colors, originating and terminating as close to the front and rear as practicable, as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the stripe centerline with the trailer at curb mass, except that at the location chosen the strip shall not be obscured in whole or in part by other motor vehicle equipment or trailer cargo. The strip need not be continuous as long as not less than half of the length of the trailer is covered and the spaces are distributed as evenly as practicable.

(b) If necessary to clear rivet heads or other similar obstructions, grade DOT-C2 retroreflective sheeting may be separated into two 25 mm wide strips of the same length and color, separated by a space of not more than 25 mm, and used in place of the retroreflective sheeting that would otherwise be applied.

S5.7.1.5 Certification. The letters DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, as appropriate, constituting a certification that the retroreflective sheeting conforms to the requirements of S5.7.1.2, shall appear at least once on the exposed surface of each white or red segment of retroreflective sheeting, and at least once every 300 mm on retroreflective sheeting that is white only. The characters shall be not less than 3 mm high, and shall be permanently stamped, etched, molded, or printed in indelible ink.

S5.7.2 Reflex Reflectors.Each trailer to which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.1 or S5.7.3 shall be equipped with reflex reflectors in accordance with this section.

S5.7.2.1

(a) Each reflex reflector shall conform to SAE Standard J594f, Reflex Reflectors, January 1977.

(b) Each red reflex reflector shall also provide, at an observation angle of 0.2 degree, not less than 300 millicandela/lux at any light entrance angle between 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, including an entrance angle of 0 degree, and not less than 75 millicandela/lux at any light entrance angle between 45 degrees left and 45 degrees right.

(c) Each white reflex reflector shall also provide at an observation angle of 0.2 degree, not less than 1250 millicandela/lux at any light entrance angle between 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, including an entrance angle of 0 degree, and not less than 300 millicandela/lux at any light entrance angle between 45 degrees left and 45 degrees right.

S5.7.2.2 Reflex reflectors shall be installed and located as specified below:

(a) In the same locations and in the same length in which retroreflective sheeting is required by S5.7.1.4 to be applied in alternating colors, reflex reflectors shall be installed in a repetitive pattern of two or three white reflex reflectors alternating with two or three red reflex reflectors, with the center of each reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.

(b) In the same locations and in the same length in which white retroreflective sheeting is required by S5.7.1.4 to be installed, white reflex reflectors shall be installed, with the center of each white reflex reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.

S5.7.2.3 Certification. The exposed surface of each reflex reflector shall be marked with the letters DOT-C which constitutes a certification that the reflector conforms to all applicable requirements of §571.108 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The certification shall be not less than 3 mm high, and shall be permanently stamped, etched, molded or printed in indelible ink.

S5.7.3 Combination of sheeting and reflectors. Each trailer to which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.1 or S5.7.2, shall be equipped with retroreflective materials that meet the requirements of S5.7.1, except that reflex reflectors that meet the requirements of S5.7.2.1 and that are installed in accordance with S5.7.2.2 may be used instead of any corresponding element of retroreflective sheeting located as required by S5.7.1.4.

S6. Subreferenced SAE Standards and Recommended Practices.

S6.1SAE Standards and Recommended Practices subreferenced by the SAE Standards and Recommended Practices included in Tables I and III and paragraphs S5.1.4 and S5.5.1 are those published in the 1970 edition of the SAE Handbook, except that the SAE standard referred to as "J575" is J575e, Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components, August 1970, for stop lamps designed to conform to SAE Standards J586c, J586 FEB84, and J1398 MAY85; for tail lamps designed to conform to SAE Standards J585d and J585e; for turn signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standards J588e, J588 NOV84, and J1395 APR85. The reference in J585e to J256 does not apply. The definition of "optically combined" in SAE Information Report J387 Terminology - Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, applies to that term as used in J586c and J588e.

S6.2 Requirements of SAE Standards incorporated by reference in this TSD, other than J576b and J576c, do not include test for warpage of devices with plastic lenses.

S6.3 The term "effective projected luminous lens area" has the same meaning as the term "functional lighted lens area" in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice incorporated by reference or by subreference in this TSD.

 

FIGURE 29 - MINIMUM PHOTOMETRIC PERFORMANCE
OF RETROREFLECTIVE SHEETING

 

(CANDELA/LUX/SQUARE METER)

Entrance angle

Observation angle

Grade

0.2 Degree

0.5 Degree

White

Red

White

Red

-4 degrees 250 60 65 15 DOT-C2
30 degrees 250 60 65 15 DOT-C2
45 degrees 60 15 15 4 DOT-C2
-4 degrees 165 40 43 10 DOT-C3
30 degrees 165 40 43 10 DOT-C3
45 degrees 40 10 10 3 DOT-C3
-4 degrees 125 30 33 8 DOT-C4
30 degrees 125 30 33 8 DOT-C4
45 degrees 30 8 8 2 DOT-C4

Figures 30-1 to 30-4

Trailer

Figure 30-1

Trailer Conspicuity Treatment Example

Trailer

Figure 30-2

Trailer Conspicuity Treatment Example

Trailer

Figure 30-3

Trailer Conspicuity Treatment Example

Trailer

Figure 30-4

Trailer Conspicuity Treatment Example

 

TABLE I - REQUIRED MOTOR VEHICLE LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

Trailers of 2.05 m or more (80 or more inches) Overall Width

 

 

Item

Trailers

Applicable SAE standard or recommended practice (See S5 for subreferenced SAE materials)
Tail lamps 2 red J585e, September 1977.
Stop lamps 2 red SAE J1398, May 1985.
License plate lamp 1 white J587 October 1981.
Reflex reflectors 4 red; 2 amber J594f, January 1977.
Side marker lamps 2 red; 2 amber J592e, July 1972.
Turn signal lamps 2 red or amber SAE J1395, April 1985.
Identification lamps 3 red J592e, July 1972.
Clearance lamps 2 amber; 2 red J592e, July 1972.
Intermediate side marker lamps 2 amber J592e, July 1972.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors 2 amber J594f, January 1977.
Conspicuity See S5.7 See S5.7

TABLE II - LOCATION OF REQUIRED EQUIPMENT

Trailers of 2.05 m or more (80 or more inches) Overall Width

Item

Location on Trailers

Height above road surface measured from center of item on vehicle at curb mass

Tail lamps On the rear, 1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches), nor more than 1 830 mm (72 inches).
Stop lamps On the rear, 1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches), nor more than 1 830 mm (72 inches).
License plate lamp At rear license plate, to illuminate the plate from the top or sides. No requirement.
Turn signal lamps On the rear - 1 red or amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable.

Not less than 380 mm (15 inches), nor more than 2 110 mm (83 inches).

Identification lamps On the rear - 3 lamps as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 150 mm (6 inches) or more than 300 mm (12 inches) apart. No requirement.
Clearance lamps On the front and rear - 2 amber lamps on front, 2 red lamps on rear, to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, one on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as near the top thereof as practicable. No requirement.
Intermediate side marker lamps On each side - 1 amber lamp located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches).
Intermediate side reflex reflectors On each side - 1 amber located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectors. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches) nor more than 1 530 mm (60 inches).
Conspicuity See S5.7 See S5.7
Reflex reflectors On the rear - 1 red on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable, and at the same height.

On each side - 1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable.

See S5.7
Side marker lamps On each side - 1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches), and on the rear of trailers not more than 1 530 mm (60 inches).

TABLE III - REQUIRED MOTOR VEHICLE LIGHTING EQUIPMENT

Trailers Less Than 2.05 m (80 inches) Overall Width

Item

Trailers

Applicable SAE standard or recommended practice (See S5 for subreferenced SAE materials)

Tail lamps 2 red J585e, September 1977.
Stop lamps 2 red SAE J586, February 1984.
License plate lamp 1 white J587, October 1981.
Reflex reflectors 4 red; 2 amber J594f, January 1977.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors 2 amber J594f, January 1977.
Intermediate side marker lamps 2 amber J592e, July 1972.
Side marker lamps 2 red; 2 amber J592e, July 1972.
Turn signal lamps 2 red or amber SAE J588, November 1984.).

TABLE IV - LOCATION OF REQUIRED EQUIPMENT

TABLE IV - LOCATION OF REQUIRED EQUIPMENT

Trailers of Less Than 2.05 m (80 inches) Overall Width

Trailers of Less Than (80 inches) Overall Width

Item

Location on Trailers

Height above road surface measured from center of item on vehicle at curb mass

Tail lamps On the rear-1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches), nor more than 1 830 mm (72 inches).
Stop lamps On the rear-1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches), nor more than 1 830 mm (72 inches).
License plate lamp At rear license plate, to illuminate the plate from the top or sides. No requirement.
Reflex reflectors On the rear - 1 red on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable.

On each side - 1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable.

Not less than 380 mm (15 inches) nor more than 1 530 mm (60 inches).
Turn signal lamps On the rear - 1 red or amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches), nor more than 2 110 mm (83 inches).
Side marker lamps On each side - 1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches).
Intermediate side marker lamps On each side - 1 amber located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches).
Intermediate side reflex reflectors On each side - 1 amber located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectors. Not less than 380 mm (15 inches) nor more than 1 530 mm (60 inches).

IMPORTANT NOTE FOR USERS

Users of this extract are cautioned that it has been prepared for use as a ready reference and has no legal force or effect. For all purposes of interpreting and applying these regulations, users should consult the Revised Status of Canada, 1985, and any pertinent amending statutory instruments.