Advisory Circular (AC) No. 700-017

Flight Crew Member Qualifications - Sections 702.65 and 703.88 of the CARs - Grouping Method for Recurrent PPC Purposes of Aeroplanes with a MCTOW of 7,000 Pounds and Less, Operating Pursuant To Subparts 702 and 703 of the CARs

Issuing Office: Civil Aviation
PAA Sub Activity Area: Aviation Safety Regulatory Framework Document No.: AC 700-017
Classification File No.: A 2204-9928 U Issue No.: 01
RDIMS No.: 3988158-V25 Effective Date: 2010-06-14

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This Advisory Circular (AC) is provided for information and guidance purposes. It may describe an example of an acceptable means, but not the only means, of demonstrating compliance with regulations and standards. This AC on its own does not change, create, amend or permit deviations from regulatory requirements, nor does it establish minimum standards.

1.1 Purpose

  1. Sections 702.65 and 703.88 of The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARS) govern flight crewmember qualifications pursuant to operations under Subparts 702 and 703 of the CARs. Aerial Work and Air Taxi operators may apply for Operations Specifications 057 and 012 authorizing the grouping of similar aeroplane types for recurrent pilot proficiency checks (PPCs) purposes. Schedule IV to Subsection 722.65 (3) and Schedule III to Paragraph 723.88(1)(i) of the Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS) state that PPC Groupings will be determined by application of the methodology contained in Chapter One of Transport Canada Publication (TP) 12993, The Common Qualification and Training Manual.

  2. Notices of proposed amendment (NPAs) were accepted by the Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory Council (CARAC) Technical Committee in November 2009. These NPAs delete reference to Chapter One of TP 12993.  These amendments, combined with the publishing of this AC describing the same methodology, will bring the documentation into compliance with the regulatory documentation framework required by CAD QUA-002 -- Civil Aviation Documentation Frameworks.

  3. The purpose of this AC is to provide a simple method of determining whether two aeroplane types with Maximum Certified Take-off Weights (MCTOW) 7,000 pounds and less, and operated pursuant to Subpart 702 of the CARs- Aerial Work and Subpart 703 of the CARs- Air Taxi can be grouped for recurrent PPC purposes.

1.2 Applicability

This document is applicable to Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) Headquarters and Regional personnel, and the aviation industry involved in Subpart 702 of the CARs-Commercial Air Service Operations -Aerial Work and Subpart 703 of the CARs-Commercial Air Service Operations -Air Taxi-Aeroplanes. 

1.3 Description of Changes

The text from TP 12993-The Common Qualification and Training Manual, Chapter 1 and the Policy Letters (PL) and Commercial & Business Aviation Advisory Circular (CBAAC) associated with this issue have been reviewed, corrected, and updated to form this AC.  The substantial changes that were made to the text taken from TP 12993—The Common Qualification and Training Manual, Chapter 1 are as follows:

  1. establishment of a base aircraft;

  2. instrument panel/switch layout assessment area that was omitted from the worksheets added to worksheets;

  3. avionics configuration assessment area added to worksheets; and

  4. math errors corrected in the example worksheet.

2.0 REFERENCES AND REQUIREMENTS

2.1 Reference Documents

It is intended that the following reference materials be used in conjunction with this document:

  1. Part VII, Subpart 702 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)-Aerial Work Operations;

  2. Part VII, Subpart 703 of the CARs-Air Taxi Operations;

  3. Part VII, Subpart 704 of the CARs-Commuter Operations;

  4. Part VII, Subpart 722 of the Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS)-Aerial Work;

  5. Part VII, Subpart 723 of the CASS -Air Taxi-Aeroplanes;

  6. Advisory Circular (AC) 700-018, Issue 01, 2010-06-14-List of Approved and Cancelled Groupings for Recurrent PPC Purposes of Aeroplanes Operating Pursuant to Subparts 702 and 703 of the CARs; and

  7. Transport Canada Publication, TP 12993—The Common Qualification and Training Manual.

2.2 Cancelled Documents

As of the effective date of this document, the following documents are cancelled:

  1. Policy Letter (PL) 119 dated 1997.07.11—New policy concerning the grouping for recurrent PPC purposes of aeroplanes that operate subject to CAR 703;

  2. PL 122 dated 1998.06.25—Approved PPC Groupings for Aeroplanes for CAR 703; and

  3. Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular (CBAAC) 0143 dated 1998.07.22Approved PPC Groupings for Aeroplanes of Less Than 7,000 Pounds MCTOW.

2. 3 Definitions and Abbreviations

The following definitions and abbreviations are used in this document:

  1. Operations Evaluation Board (OEB) is typically composed of regulatory personnel from the FAA’s FSB, a JAA JOEB operations sub-group, and from a TCCA Operational Evaluation (OE) Team. The OEB is responsible for establishing the flight crew member type ratings, and assessing training, checking and currency requirements associated with the introduction of a new aircraft or a variant of an existing aircraft into commercial service;

  2. AC means Advisory Circular;

  3. AFM means Aircraft/Aeroplane Flight Manual;

  4. CAIRS means Civil Aviation Issues Reporting System;

  5. CARs means Canadian Aviation Regulations;

  6. CARAC means Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory Council;

  7. CASO means Commercial Air Service Operations;

  8. CASS means Commercial Air Service Standards;

  9. FAA means Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.);

  10. FSB means Flight Standards Board (U.S.);

  11. JAA means Joint Aviation Authorities;

  12. JOEB means Joint Operational Evaluation Board (JAA);

  13. MCTOW means Maximum Certified Take-off Weight;

  14. NPA means Notice of Proposed Amendment;

  15. PL means Policy Letter;

  16. PPC means Pilot Proficiency Check;

  17. TCCA means Transport Canada Civil Aviation; and

  18. TP means Transport Canada Publication.

3.0 BACKGROUND

  1. Following a fatal accident at Tuktoyaktuk, NWT in December 1993, the Transportation Safety Board (TSB) of Canada issued three recommendations to TCCA concerning the PPC grouping policy.  The three recommendations required TCCA to:

    1. confirm the suitability of all existing groupings;

    2. revise the guidelines for grouping of aircraft for PPCs to account for the susceptibility to transfer errors by flight crew; and

    3. establish a list of approved groupings for aircraft of less than 7,000 pounds MCTOW.

  2. TCCA reviewed the groupings for all aeroplanes pursuant to Subpart 704 of the CARs and for all aeroplanes with a MCTOW greater than 7,000 pounds pursuant to Subpart 703 of the CARs.  TCCA is satisfied that the groupings for these aeroplanes, as currently published in the CASS, are valid.  Any requests for new groupings for aeroplanes with a MCTOW greater than 7,000 pounds will be assessed by TCCA.

  3. NPA 97-296 was presented on June 18th, 1997 at the Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory Council (CARAC) Technical Committee Meeting for Part VII Commercial Air Service Operations (CASO).  This NPA proposed amending the standard for grouping of aeroplanes of less than 7,000 pounds MCTOW, found in Section 723.88 of the CASS, to require groupings for these aeroplanes to be based on the method found in Chapter 1 of TP 12993, The Common Qualification and Training Manual. The methodology was fully consulted with the TCCA Regions in the spring of 1997.  CASO accepted the NPA without revision, and requested that all groupings under this policy be approved at TCCA Headquarters to apply in a uniform manner nationally.

4.0 METHOD FOR DETERMINING GROUPING FOR RECURRENT PPC PURPOSES OF AEROPLANES WITH A MCTOW OF 7,000 POUNDS AND LESS, OPERATING PURSUANT TO SUBPARTS 702 AND 703 OF THE CARS

4.1 General

  1. The following describes a simple analytical method that assesses the differences between two aeroplanes and calculates a value (Grouping Index) indicating the overall differences between the two aeroplanes assessed.  The worksheet and the procedures for its use contained in this section provide systematic and objective means of determining whether or not two aeroplane types are suitable for PPC Grouping according to Subsection 722.65(3) and Paragraph 723.88(1)(i) of the CASS.  It attempts to rate differences between two aeroplanes for a number of critical performance parameters, handling characteristics, and aircraft configuration.  The differences are assessed both by the scale of the difference Differences Factor (DF) and by the accident potential of the difference Severity Factor (SF) should a pilot, in the stress of an emergency, confuse the parameter, characteristic, or configuration of one aeroplane for the other.

  2. The methodology only addresses recurrent PPC grouping (checking credit). It does not address the two other requirements of flight crew qualification: training and currency.

4.2 Severity Factor

The SF used are those that were used by TCCA System Safety in the Operational Safety Review process.

  1. High Accident Potential         3

  2. Medium Accident Potential    2 

  3. Low Accident Potential         1

4.3 Base Aeroplane

An aeroplane is designated as the base aeroplane (or base aircraft), and is used as a reference to compare differences with another aeroplane.

4.4 Differences Factor

The DF is a measure of the scale of difference between two aeroplanes for the assessment area (parameter/characteristic/configuration) being analyzed.  The symbol Δ is used to represent the scale of difference for the assessment area analyzed.

4.5 Performance

Differences in aeroplane performance are assessed for four critical speeds: stall speed (Vs), minimum control speed air (Vmca), best rate of climb speed single-engine (Vyse) and maximum operating speed (Vmo).  The DF for different scales of difference are given below:

Vs
ΔVs
 

DF

 

Vmca
ΔVmca

DF

 

Vyse
ΔVyse

DF

 

VMO
ΔVmo

DF

≤ 5 KIAS

0

 

≤ 5 KIAS

0

 

≤ 5 KIAS

0

 

≤ 10 KIAS

0

6-10 KIAS

1

 

6-10 KIAS

1

 

6-10 KIAS

1

 

11-15 KIAS

1

11-15 KIAS

2

 

11-15 KIAS

2

 

11-15 KIAS

2

 

16-20 KIAS

2

16-20 KIAS

3

 

16-20 KIAS

3

 

16-20 KIAS

3

 

≥ 21 KIAS

3

≥ 21 KIAS

4

 

≥ 21 KIAS

4

 

≥ 21 KIAS

4

     

4.6 Configuration

  1. Differences in configuration between aeroplanes can lead to different operating procedures, which, if confused under stress, could exacerbate an already abnormal situation. Differences in configuration are assessed for engines, instrument panel/switch layout, avionics, trim controls, landing gear, engine controls, icing protection certification and pressurization as per the following tables:

    Engines
    ΔEng
     

    DF

     

    Instrument Panel/Switch Layout
    ΔInst
     

    DF

    Recip/Turbine

    3

     

    Similar/Minor Differences

    0

    Fuel Injected/Carburetted

    2

     

    Dissimilar/Major Differences

    1

    Normally Aspirated/T-Charged

    1

         

    Recip/Recip

    0

         

    Turbine/Turbine

    0

         
             
    Avionics (Night VFR or IFR Ops)
    ΔAvns


     
    DF
     
         
    EFIS/Non-EFIS 1      
    FMS-RNAV/Non-FMS-RNAV 1      
    Autopilot/Non-Autopilot 1      
             

    Trim Controls
    ΔTrim
     

    DF

     

    Landing Gear
    ΔL/G

    DF

    Similar Configuration

    0

     

    Fixed/Fixed

    0

    Dissimilar Configuration 1   Fixed/Retractable 1
          Retractable/Retractable 0
  2. Engine Controls - Different arrangements of engine controls in the throttle quadrant are described using the following acronyms: t=throttle (or power lever), p=propeller, m=mixture or f=fuel.

    ΔTQ

    DF

         

    Similar Configuration (tpm, tpm or tpf, tpf)

    0

         

    Dissimilar Configuration (tpm, mtp or tpf ftp)

    1

         
             
    Ice Protection
    ΔIce


     
    DF
     
      Pressurization
    ΔPress


     
    DF
     
    Certified/Non-certified 1   Pressurized/Non-Pressurized 2
    Certified/Certified 0   Pressurized/Pressurized 0
    Non-certified/Non-certified 0   Non-pressurized/Non-Pressurized 0

4.7 Special Handling Characteristics

  • ΔSHC

    DF

         

    Special Characteristics/ No or different special characteristics

    1

         

    No/No

    0

         

4.8 Grouping Factor and Grouping Index

The Grouping Factor (GF) for each item represents the product of the DF and SF (DF x SF). The sum of the GFs for each assessment area is the Grouping Index (GI) for the aeroplanes assessed. Grouping is permissible for a GI of 15 or less. If the GI is greater than 15, grouping is not advisable.

4.9 Completing the Worksheet

  1. The following information explains how to complete the PPC Grouping Worksheet which is shown in Appendix A. For ease of reference, a completed worksheet for this example follows section 4.9 of this AC. Using the Aircraft/Aeroplane Flight Manuel for the two aeroplanes, fill in the table for each critical parameter or characteristic. Aeroplane A is the base Aeroplane And is used as a reference to compare differences with Aeroplane B. For example:

    1. Vs: Vs for Aeroplane A 63K, for Aeroplane B 75K, fill in 63K under Aeroplane A, 75K under Aeroplane B.

    2. Vmca: Vmca for Aeroplane A 92K, for Aeroplane B 94K, fill in 92K under Aeroplane A, 94K under Aeroplane B.

    3. Vyse: Vyse for Aeroplane A 110K, for Aeroplane B 108K, fill in 110K under Aeroplane A, 108K under Aeroplane B.

    4. Vmo: Vmo for Aeroplane A 202K, for Aeroplane B 195K, fill in 202K under Aeroplane A, 195K under Aeroplane B.

    5. Engines: Aeroplane A is powered by reciprocating engines, Aeroplane B is powered by turbo-props (t/p), fill in recip under Aeroplane A, t/p under Aeroplane B.

    6. Instrument Panel/Switch Layout: Aeroplane A and B have dissimilar instrument panel and switch layouts with Aeroplane B having major differences from Aeroplane A. Fill in major under Aeroplane A and B.

    7. Avionics (Night VFR or IFR Ops): Aeroplane A does not have an autopilot nor RNAV system, while Aeroplane B has both autopilot and RNAV system. Fill in non-AP and non-RNAV for Aeroplane A, and AP and RNAV for Aeroplane B.

    8. Trim Controls: Both Aeroplanes A and B have 3-axis trim controls located on a similar console, fill in 3-axis, console for both Aeroplane A and B.

    9. Landing Gear: Both Aeroplanes A and B have retractable landing gear, fill in ret for both Aeroplane A and B.

    10. Engine Controls: Both Aeroplanes A and B have a similar engine control layout to control power, propeller and mixture/fuel. Fill in tpm for Aeroplane A and tpf for Aeroplane B.

    11. Ice Protection: Aeroplane A is not certified for flight into known icing, Aeroplane B is certified, fill in non under Aeroplane A, and cert under Aeroplane B.

    12. Pressurization: Both are non-pressurized. Fill in non for both Aeroplane A and B.

    13. Special Handling Characteristics: Both Aeroplane A and B have similar handling characteristics and neither has any special handling characteristics. Fill in none for both Aeroplane A and B.

  2. Fill in the applicable DF for each assessment area using the tables above. In the example:

    1. Vs: The difference in stall speeds is 12K; fill in the 2 for the DF ΔVs.

    2. Vmca: The difference in minimum control speed air is 2K; fill in the 0 for the DF ΔVmca.

    3. Vyse: The difference in best rate of climb speed single engine is 2K; fill in the 0 for the DF ΔVyse.

    4. Vmo: The difference in maximum operating speeds is 7K; fill in the 0 for the DF ΔVmo.

    5. Engines: The difference is recip/turbo-prop; fill in 3 for the DF ΔEng.

    6. Instrument Panel/Switch Layout: The difference in instrument panel /switch layout is major; fill in 1 for DF ΔInst.

    7. Avionics (Night VFR or IFR Ops): The difference in avionics is both non-autopilot/autopilot and non-RNAV/RNAV; fill in 2 (1 + 1 = 2) for DF ΔAvns.

    8. Trim Controls: Similar trim controls; fill in 0 for DF ΔTrim.

    9. Landing Gear: Same type of landing gear; fill in 0 for DF ΔL/G.

    10. Engine Controls: Same layout of engine controls; fill in 0 for ΔTQ.

    11. Ice Protection: The difference is non-certified versus certified ice protection; fill in 1 for DF ΔIce.

    12. Pressurization: Both are non-pressurized; fill in 0 for DF ΔPress.

    13. Special Handling Characteristics: No difference in handling characteristics; fill in 0 for ΔSHC.
  3. For each assessment area, multiply the DF by the SF to obtain the GF. For the example:

    1. Vs: The GF for the difference in stall speeds is 6 (3 x 2 = 6).

    2. Vmca: The GF for the difference in minimum control speed air is 0 (0 x 3 = 0).

    3. Vyse: The GF for the difference in best rate of climb speed single engine is 0 (0 x 3 = 0).

    4. Vmo: The GF for the difference in maximum operating speeds is 0 (0 x 3 = 0).

    5. Engines: The GF for the difference in engines is 6 (3 x 2 = 6).

    6. Instrument Panel/Switch Layout: The GF for the difference in instrument panel /switch layout is 1 (1 x 1 = 1).

    7. Avionics (Night VFR or IFR Ops): The GF for the difference in avionics is 4 (2 x 2 = 4).

    8. Trim Controls: The GF for similar trim controls is 0 (0 x 2 = 0).

    9. Landing Gear: The GF for the same type of landing gear is 0 (0 x 1 = 0).

    10. Engine Controls: The GF for the same layout of engine controls is 0 (0 x 2 = 0).

    11. Ice Protection: The GF for the difference in ice protection is 1 (1 x 1 = 1).

    12. Pressurization: The GF for the same non-pressurized capability is 0 (0 x 1 = 0).

    13. Special Handling Characteristics: The GF for similar handling characteristics is 0 (0 x 3 = 0).
  4. The sum of the GFs for all the assessment areas results in GI for Aeroplane A and B of 18. Since the maximum GI for grouping has been set at 15, Aeroplanes A and B should not be grouped for recurrent PPC purposes.

    Assessment Area

    Aeroplane A

    Aeroplane B

    Differences
    Factor (DF)

    Severity
    Factor (SF)

    Grouping Factor=(DFx SF)

    Performance

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    Vs

    63K

    75K

    ΔVs    =  2

    3

    6

    Vmca

    92K

    94K

    ΔVmca =  0

    3

    0

     Vyse

    110K

    108K

    ΔVyse  =  0

    3

    0

     Vmo

    202K

    195K

    ΔVmo   =  0

    3

    0

    Configuration

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    Engines

    recip

    t/p

    ΔEng    =  3

    2

    6

    Instr Panel/Switch Layout

    major

    major

    ΔInst   =  1

    1

    1

    Avionics(Night VFR or IFR Ops)

    non-AP, non RNAV

    AP, RNAV

    ΔAvns  =  2
    (1 + 1)

    2

    4

    Trim Controls

    3-axis, console

    3-axis, console

    ΔTrim   =  0

    2

    0

    Landing Gear

    ret

    ret

    ΔL/G    =  0

    1

    0

     Engine Controls

    tpm*

    tpf*

    ΔTQ    =  0

    2

    0

     Ice Protection

    non cert

    cert

    ΔIce    =  1

    1

    1

    Pressurization

    non

    non

    ΔPress =  0

    1

    0

    Special Handling Characteristics

    none

    none

    ΔSHC  =  0

    3

    0

    TOTAL – Grouping Index (GI)

    -

    -

    -

    -

    18

5.0 CONTACT OFFICE

For more information, please contact the:
Program Manager Flight Technical, Certification & Operational Standards Division (AARTF)

Phone: 613-993-4692
Fax: 613-954-1602

Suggestions for amendment to this document are invited, and should be submitted via the Transport Canada Civil Aviation Issues Reporting System (CAIRS) at the following Internet address:

http://www.tc.gc.ca/wcms-sgcw/civilaviation/cairs-755.htm

or by e-mail at: CAIRS_NCR@tc.gc.ca

Original signed by Arlo Speer for
Don Sherritt
Director, Standards
Civil Aviation
Transport Canada

APPENDIX A—PPC GROUPING WORKSHEET

Assessment Area

Aeroplane A

Aeroplane B

Differences
Factor (DF)

Severity
Factor (SF)

Grouping Factor (GF) (= DF x SF)

Performance

-

-

-

-

-

Vs

   

ΔVs    =  

3

 

Vmca

   

ΔVmca =  

3

 

 Vyse

   

ΔVyse  =  

3

 

 Vmo

   

ΔVmo   =  

3

 
Configuration

-

-

-

-

-

Engines

   

ΔEng    =  

2

 

Instrument Panel/Switch

   

ΔInst   =  

1

 

Avionics(Night VFR or IFR Ops)

   

ΔAvns  =  
(1 + 1)

2

 

Trim Controls

   

ΔTrim   = 

2

 

Landing Gear

   

ΔL/G    =  

1

 

 Engine Controls

   

ΔTQ    =  

2

 

 Ice Protection

   

ΔIce    = 

1

 

Pressurization

   

ΔPress

1

 
Special Handling Characteristics    

ΔSHC  = 

3

 

TOTAL –Grouping Index (GI)

-

-

-

-

 
Date modified: